Are you fed-up with how the Canadian government is treating the Cree First Nation of Beaver Lake?
Do you think that they have the right to #Consultation?
Then we ask your help by re-posting this video, use the hashtags so we can find you, and/or donate to the Beaver Lake Cree. Thank you!
The Crowd vs. Tarsands Mining in Canada
Beaver Lake Cree Nation is challenging the governments of Canada and Alberta for breaking their treaty promises by allowing 19,000 permits for mineral developments (mostly tar sands mining) on their territory. For more information, check here.
In 2008, Beaver Lake Cree Nation (BLCN) filed a legal action against the governments of Canada and Alberta over the constitutional standing of numerous projects, including tarsands development – one of the world’s largest and most carbon-intensive energy developments. The high-stakes action represents a precedent in the Canadian court system. The Beaver Lake Cree case will be the first time the court is asked to delineate what counts as too much industrial development in the face of constitutionally protected treaty rights.
The conflict is between the promise in Treaty 6, which was signed in 1876 between the imperial Crown and First Nations. The treaty guarantees and affirms BLCN’s inherent right to hunt, trap, fish, and gather in perpetuity throughout their traditional territory and beyond, and the government’s allowable use of lands.
It took five years of battling just to get the case to go to trial. Having welcomed a veritable cavalcade of tarsands projects over the last couple of decades, Alberta and Canada have fought this legal action every step of the way. The two governments applied for a motion to dismiss the case, calling it “frivolous, improper and an abuse of process.” But the courts disagreed – both the Court of Queen’s Bench and at the appeals level – and said no further “delaying tactics” should be permitted.
The key issue is now going forward to trial: because of Crown authorizations, swaths of Beaver Lake Cree’s traditional territory no longer support the Nation’s way of life. Habitats have been fragmented and lands and waters have been degraded in ways that impede the Beaver Lake Cree’s meaningful exercise of treaty rights.
“Beaver Lake’s case raises pressing issues of fundamental importance to the Treaty relationship and reconciliation, but not yet considered by the courts: to what extent does Treaty 6 protect a meaningful way of life, and to what extent is the Crown obligated to consider cumulative effects on the meaningful practice of that way of life when it authorizes development?” noted Karey Brooks, legal counsel for the Beaver Lake Cree, in a press release last November.
The Nation can no longer ignore the impact to their land and way of life. As I explain on raventrust.com, “Canada and Alberta have issued more than 19,000 individual authorizations (permits), which have translated into 300 individual industrial projects that take up more than 90 per cent of Beaver Lake Cree traditional territory. As a result, the once-pristine forest and hunting grounds are now covered with over 35,000 oil and gas sites, 21,700 kilometres of seismic lines, 4,028 kilometres of pipeline, and 948 kilometres of road – with devastating effects on wildlife populations like the woodland caribou and fish species.”
“Alberta and Canada argue that they are doing their diligence in their due process to consult with First Nations. What the Beaver Lake Cree Nation seeks is not an arbitrary process, but rather consent as affirmed in the UNDRIP Article 19,” explains Crystal Lameman, treaty coordinator for the Beaver Lake Cree.
“What the Beaver Lake Cree Nation seeks is not an arbitrary process, but rather consent as affirmed in the UNDRIP Article 19.”
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) mandates that “States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them.”
“Yet Alberta is asking for an exemption of in-situ projects from federal regulation, and that downstream emissions from the burning of fossil fuels be excluded from the regulatory review process, on the grounds that they already are subject to an onerous environmental review process of in-situ oilsands development through the Alberta Climate Leadership Plan (ACLP),” says Lameman. “What Alberta fails to mention is that the ACLP does not provide for protection of Treaty rights, omits cumulative effects and does not consider emissions from the combustion of Alberta oil outside of the province’s borders, [like] downstream emissions.”
On the supply side, the ACLP still allows emissions from the production of the tarsands to increase 47.5 per cent above 2014 levels. And Canada’s and Alberta’s carbon emissions calculations focus only on domestic carbon pollution. Neither the Alberta emissions cap nor the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change account for the emissions caused by burning exported Canadian fossil fuels – mainly Alberta oil.
“Emissions play a role in the cumulative effects of climate change and environmental impacts, therefore impacts to treaty rights. Thus, First Nations should be involved in decision-making, but we are not – and this is what we seek,” adds Lameman.
“Where 80 per cent of all future oilsands growth will be from in-situ development, Canada’s largest industrial project cannot be dismissed from any environmental assessment. The majority of in-situ oilsands development in Alberta is in Treaty 6 (west) territory and that of the territory of the Beaver Lake Cree,” Lameman continues.
After spending five years in the court system defending their right to even bring this case forward, the Beaver Lake Cree have recently asked the court to order Canada and Alberta to pay a portion of Beaver Lake Cree’s trial costs in advance. This is the same mechanism that made it possible for the Tsilhqot’in to sustain nearly two decades of litigation and to win their historic title case. A hearing on the Advance Costs Order was held in February in Edmonton. Now the Beaver Lake Cree are awaiting the judge’s ruling.
We’re inviting Canadians to donate to the case at www.tarsandstrial.com. Helping to fund the case would allow the Beaver Lake Cree to use their scarce resources to benefit the community. It would be an injustice if lack of funds created an impenetrable barrier to the judicial recognition of Beaver Lake’s rights.
Susan Smitten is the executive director of RAVEN (Respecting Aboriginal Values & Environmental Needs), a Victoria-based non-profit charitable organization that provides financial resources to assist Aboriginal Nations within Canada in enforcing their rights and title to protect their traditional territories and the environment.
11 April 2019; originally published March 8, 2019 by Ana Simeon, RAVEN Trust
It was an emotional moment. The morning of February 19th, Beaver Lake Cree elders and community members crowded into a packed courtroom, having risen before dawn to make the 3-hour journey from Lac La Biche to the Court of Queen’s Bench in Edmonton. The sense of expectancy was palpable: after waiting for so many years, thwarted by Canada and Alberta at every step, would they finally receive justice?
Throughout the hearing, the court heard affidavit evidence from 10 band members. In submission after submission, Beaver Lake Cree people expressed many painful losses. Elders, knowledge keepers and community members described how, due to unchecked industry, they are no longer able to meaningfully exercise the way of life and culture that was promised to them under Treaty 6. They spoke of the broken promises reflected in the 19,000+ Crown authorizations for tar sands and other industrial development in their territory.
Loss of caribou, pollution of water, fragmentation of culture: over three long days, Beaver Lake Cree witnesses spoke of the tragic consequences of neglected treaty rights in northern Alberta.
It was inspiring to see the resilience of this community that travelled for hours to have their presence felt. Youth sat front and centre, attentively listening and watching the colonial system in action. Elders struggled to hear but seemed to find humour in the evidence; specifically at claims from the province that Beaver Lake does not live in poverty.
Part of what was being debated at the hearing is whether the issues raised by the Beaver Lake Cree are of national importance. Of course, we think that they are: this is a case that goes to the heart of what Canada’s responsibility to uphold the treaties really means. In particular, the case — known as The Tar Sands Trial — addresses questions about whether Treaty 6 (and all the Numbered Treaties) assures Indigenous Peoples of a way of life, and whether there should be limits to how much land and resources the Crown can take up, as allowed in the agreement, before the Treaty is infringed.
Meanwhile, the Canadian government denies that the rights asserted by the Beaver Lake Cree even exist. The Crown denies that treaty infringement has taken place. For these hearings, a whole suite of Department of Justice lawyers has been tasked to challenge an under-resourced First Nation’s attempts to secure the funding it needs to go to trial.
“Canada’s position in Court stands in stark contrast to the high-level promises of the Trudeau government to promote reconciliation and to listen to Indigenous people,” says Me Karey Brooks, legal counsel for Beaver Lake Cree. “Without this case, and the advanced funding order, these critically important issues will not get resolved.”
It is important to remember that reconciliation has a specific meaning in law: it is about forcing Crown sovereignty to take account with and be reconciled with the pre-existing rights of Indigenous Peoples, reflecting the prior use and occupation of land and resources. The issues being brought forward by the Beaver Lake Cree are deeply significant for First Nations across the country – and for all Canadians who care about acting honourably and setting right our relationships with Indigenous Peoples.
That’s why we recognize that this small Nation should not have to foot the bill for this fight on their own.
At RAVEN, we are used to quick and nimble fundraising campaigns in support of rapid-response Indigenous legal challenges to pipeline and mining projects. The Beaver Lake Cree case has been different – it’s been legally complex, fiercely denied by Canada and Alberta, lengthy and drawn out. It’s hard to believe, but the Nation has been championing their treaty rights for more than a decade!
We’re amazed and humbled by that commitment and staying power. We applaud Beaver Lake Cree leadership for standing up again and again to demand justice. They do so strengthened in the knowledge that so many donors like yourself are at their backs. The wave of support from all across the country this fall and winter has been incredible – we’ve raised $246,000 and counting, more than 90% of it from people organizing, fundraising, and donating to see justice done. Please accept our most heartfelt gratitude.
We couldn’t have done this without movement allies, such as Equiterre, the Leap, and Climate Justice Edmonton, along with online fundraisers who have reached out to family and friends for support for the Beaver Lake Cree.
As we all wait for the court decision, know that you are doing your part to defend the spirit of the Treaties, and to forge a new way forward for this country that upholds the rights of the Indigenous Peoples who have stewarded the land, air and water since time immemorial. It is our honour to be standing with you.
With gratitude, Laurie, Ana and the whole RAVEN team
The Beaver Lake Cree First Nation fights a monumental legal battle to end tar sands projects on their territory. It destroys their land and their way of life. On 19 February the case has an important hearing. This is what happened before.
In 1876 the Canadian Crown promised the First Nations that in exchange for sharing their lands and keeping the peace, they could keep their way of life, culture, and the right to hunt, fish, trap in perpetuity. This is called Treaty 6.
19.000 fossil fuel mining projects
Since, the government of Canada and Alberta gave permission for 19 000 fossil fuel mining projects on the territory of the Beaver Lake Cree First Nation. This goes against Treaty 6.
Most of these 19.000 projects are tar sands mining projects. Tar sands mining is one of the most polluting forms of mineral developments, causing worldwide climate change.
In 2008 Beaver Lake Cree First Nation filed a legal action against the governments of Canada and Alberta over the constitutional standing of numerous tar sands projects.
The case could proceed
After 5 years of beleaguered battling the case could go to trial. Alberta and Canada fought every step of the way to have the claim dismissed, but the court disagreed and has allowed the case to proceed.
On 19 February 2019 the case has an important hearing. You can support the case by sharing the message or donating today.
Beaver Lake Cree First Nation is taking on the tarsands – Canada’s fastest growing source of climate pollution. Tar sands extraction is poisoning the water, eliminates whole forests, and decimates traditional food sources for the Beaver Lake Cree people. Politicians won’t challenge the power of the tar sands industry, but together we can. Support their case or help them share the message.
Precedent Setting Case
The Beaver Lake Cree Nation is the first ever case to challenge and be granted a trial on the cumulative impacts of industrial development and they have a hearing on February 19, 2019. Their goal is:
Not one project, not one mine: all of them at once must go.
This hearing will determine whether they will be granted the financial means to go to trial, and your support is vital. If they win, we all win.
The Beaver Lake Cree homeland has been scarred and polluted by an incredible number of tar sands projects. Oil and gas wells and infrastructure have displaced the moose and elk. Drainage from the winning of tar sands has polluted the water. Caribou may be driven to extinction in this region within 10 years.
What is the accusation?
Beaver Lake Cree Nation is accusing the governments of Canada and Alberta for breaking their treaty promises. They have allowed over 19 000 permits for mineral developments (mostly tar sands) on their territory. These fossil fuel projects threaten the way of life of the Beaver Lake Cree, by polluting and fragmenting the land and water that have sustained them for centuries.
On February 19th the hearing will be held. Will they get justice to be able to carry on?
Join the movement
It’s time to join forces to protect the environment, climate, and Indigenous People’s right to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent.
The power of the crowd
The individual cannot change history, but together as individuals we can.
You can contribute to this case by donating money and share the message.
What’s at stake for Indigenous peoples is at stake for all of us. Justice, balance, protecting local communities from further harm, and a livable climate.
Last week, Alberta Premier Rachel Notley announced a cut in tar sands production.
A drop in prices for dirty bitumen has been blamed on lack of pipeline capacity, which has been blamed on RAVEN Trust. Besides this, RAVEN Trust has enjoyed other major accomplishments: an overview.
RAVEN Trust’s Accomplishments
By backing Indigenous Nations in court, RAVEN Trust stopped Enbridge. Together with and thanks to the Tsleil Waututh, Squamish, Coldwater and Secwepemc Nations. All these collaborated to stop the (formerly Kinder Morgan) TransMountain pipeline expansion.
Over a Million Canadian Dollars
By harnessing the power of cutting edge, digital organizing, tools, RAVEN Trust invited dedicated people to help. These people supported by donating, fundraising online, and organizing events. These people helped to raise over a million dollars (and counting) to fund game-changing court cases. These cases have forced the government and industry to take Indigenous rights seriously.
A Winning Streak in the Canadian Courts
At this moment in history, Indigenous First Nations are on an unprecedented winning streak in the country’s courts. These wins are setting powerful precedents that will reshape our common future.
The impact of RAVEN Trust’s work writes the landscape.
Held Off Open Pit Mining
RAVEN Trust prevented two major pipelines from transforming the Pacific coast into a fossil fuel export superhighway. They have held off open pit mining in the Tsilhqot’in. They have sent LNG giant Petronas packing. And they pushed back against industrial development of the Yukon’s pristine Peel Watershed.
RAVEN Trust Circle of Allies
RAVEN Trust started the ‘Circle of Allies’. The time is now. Together we pull harder, because the gains made are counterbalanced by a ruthless fossil fuel industry. This fossil fuel industry grows more desperate as its climate impact becomes irrefutably clear.
While the world teeters on the brink of climate catastrophe, the cost of inaction is just too great.
We can wallow in despair or we can use our collective power to turn the tide.
RAVEN Trust invites people to join their Circle of Allies, with the following message:
Please commit to help Indigenous Nations see groundbreaking legal challenges through, all the way from inception to eventual success: find out more about our Circle of Allies.
The Crowd Versus is honored and proud to work with this powerful organization.
International Support for Tarsands Case Makes a Real Difference
Your active support for the Beaver Lake Cree First Nation helps their monumental lawsuit against the governments of Canada and Alberta. The Beaver Lake Cree aim to stop the permitting of tar sands mining on their territory. Their original Treaty 6 rights endow them with the ‘right to hunt, fish, and forage in perpetuity’ on their territories. The mining permits now limit these activities.
Treaties represent living agreements between First Nations and the Canadian Crown. All Canadians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, are therefore Treaty people. Treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada are affirmed and recognized as central to Canada’s very existence as a nation by the Constitution Act, 1982.
Yet despite these lofty commitments, Canada continues to turn treaty lands, like Beaver Lake Cree’s territory, into sacrifice zones. Beaver Lake Cree lands, waters and resources have become inaccessible and unusable for the exercise of the nation’s rights under Treaty 6.
The Supreme Court of Canada has said that although the Crown has a right to authorize land use, there may come a time when too much Crown-authorized land use renders Treaty rights meaningless. The Beaver Lake Cree First Nation has committed through its lawsuit to halt the destruction before it reaches that point. This is what the Tar Sands Trial is all about.
Mobilize international support
Ron Lameman, Director of Justice & Legal Affairs of the Beaver Lake Cree First Nation, argues that international effort and support for this case make a huge difference.
“We’re very pleased to see efforts in Europe to support the Beaver Lake Cree case against the tar sands. The Crowd Versus is doing important work to mobilize international support for this case and other Indigenous causes worldwide” – Ron Lameman, Beaver Lake Cree Nation.
Since the start of the case, Canada and Alberta have tried to delay the trial. So Cole and the Beaver Lake Cree First Nation have asked the court to award them a portion of trial costs in advance (the Amended Amended Statement of Claim). They base their claim on the precedent-setting nature of the tar sands case. The hearing on this motion will be heard in February, 2019. If this motion succeeds, the Beaver Lake Cree can obtain a court order that the federal and provincial governments pay for the costs of the litigation in advance. This will dramatically accelerate trial preparation. Eliminating delays protects the undeveloped lands .
In preparation of the hearing and trial, the Beaver Lake Cree are currently gathering videos as evidence from band members about traditional land use in tar sands-impacted lands. These include hunting, fishing, and foraging based on the Beaver Lake Cree traditional seasonal rounds. They have authorized expert reports on the cumulative effects of land and water pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by the tar sands mining to use as evidence.
The Crowd Versus will update you on the outcome of the hearing in February 2019.
Tweet this: Help a strong and courageous First Nation to #StopTarsandsMining in court: a gamechanger for #ClimateAction, #cdnpoli, #indigenousrights and for all of us. @RAVENTrust @TheCrowdVersus
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This link http://bit.ly/BeaverLakeCreeFirstNation may be used to save room; it leads directly to the landing page for the Beaver Lake Cree First Nation crowdfunding case at www.thecrowdversus.org.
And when you want to do even more, you can check this news post to get Activation Case support materials to start a fundraiser. We will amplify whatever you post.
RAVEN stands for Respecting Aboriginal Values and Environmental Needs. RAVEN has used state-of-the-art digital tools to amplify and grow the power of grassroots movements.
Find out how you can support Indigenous leaders as they gear up for the fight of a generation. Understand how you can be part of stopping tar sands expansion by taking strategic climate action in your own community. Hear case studies of how extraordinary ordinary people have used our crowdfunding model to raise hundreds of thousands of dollars. Learn to stop the Enbridge pipeline. Quash the approval of the Kinder Morgan pipeline. And — next up — force tar sands projects to be evaluated according to cumulative impacts on treaty rights.
We are serious about Indigenous Rights — providing access to justice for First Nations is RAVEN’s entire reason for being.
While we look to the voices of the land and waters for the passionate spark, we stoke those flames by using the same powerful engagement tools as “Run for the Cure”. Discover how you can contribute to this generational struggle in a meaningful way, by setting up an online fundraiser, or engaging your friends and family, to support something you care about.
The Beaver Lake Cree live in a remote part of northern Alberta that was until recently a magnificent wilderness. They want everyone who cares about the future of the planet to get involved, so they can tap into a network of solidarity and make their case — that unfettered tar sands expansion is violating their treaty rights and must be stopped!
Stand with Indigenous Peoples: donate, organize an event, or set up an online fundraiser
Indigenous Nations are on a winning streak in the Canadian country’s courts. We’ve stopped pipelines, pushed back against open pit mining and built an unprecedented alliance that is igniting all across the country.
Now it’s time to tackle climate destruction at the source: Canada’s dirty tar sands.
At the heart of the largest industrial project on Earth, a tiny Nation who’ve lost 90% of their territory to oil and gas development are saying, “Enough.” From tar sands ground zero, the Beaver Lake Cree are waging a monumental tar sands lawsuit against Canada and Alberta to force them to honour treaty rights and push back against tar sands development on their territory.
The lawsuit is the first ever to challenge the cumulative impacts of industrial development. Not one project, not one mine: all of them at once.
Indigenous legal challenges are behind the biggest progressive wins in this country. Cases supported by RAVEN halted the Kinder Morgan TransMountain pipeline. Our Pull Together campaign killed the Enbridge pipeline. From these victories has sprung a movement of people like you, who are strategic, focussed, and 100% committed to level the playing field so that Indigenous Nations can stand toe-to-toe with industry and government in the courts.
It’s a defining moment: will we allow the ideologues who are seizing power to distort our democracy to serve Big Oil’s agenda? Or will we rise together to realize the vision of a fair country, where the caretaker values of Indigenous Peoples become integral to solving the climate crisis?
The Tar Sands Trial aims to force limits on an industry that has been allowed to violate the treaties at every turn, and wreak havoc on the health of ecosystems and local communities. We need leaders like you to build this unprecedented alliance that is growing across the country because — when we join forces — we’re unstoppable.
Stand with Indigenous Peoples: donate, organize an event, or set up an online fundraiser. We’ve got just under 10 weeks before the Beaver Lake Cree go to court, and we need $100,000. Are you in?
Ayendri, Brendan, Ana, Andrea and the rest of the RAVEN team
P.S. People who stepped up to organize events and host online fundraisers were the magic that helped us to stop Enbridge and Kinder Morgan. Now, we’re unleashing the power of the crowd to stop tar sands at the source. Take it to the next level by hosting an event or setting up an online fundraiser.
If you held the winning card in a life or death game — would you play it if you knew it also came with a price that would leave you, your family and all your relations destitute for possibly generations to come? And knowing that the price of not playing it would leave you, your family and all your relations without food, water or a safe place to live for even longer? Rock, meet hard place.
That’s the dilemma we see many Indigenous nations face regularly when deciding to take the step of facing down Crown governments in court based on their Constitutionally-guaranteed rights (section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982) in order to protect their land, rights and way of life. It’s one thing to have the Constitution card in your pocket; it’s another thing to be able to play it in a Canadian court when up against the deep resources of the federal or a provincial government or both. Particularly when Crown governments have tended to use strategies of delay and outspend as a way to manage this challenge to their support for extractive industries like oil or mining.
The Beaver Lake Cree case will be the first time a court is asked to draw the line defining too much industrial development in the face of constitutionally-protected treaty rights.
As the executive director of RAVEN (Respecting Aboriginal Values & Environmental Needs), a charitable non-profit organization that raises legal defence funds to assist Indigenous peoples to defend their constitutionally protected rights, I have witnessed first-hand the struggle that they often have in accessing justice through our courts. It’s not an easy decision for Nations to go to court. There is a significant imbalance of power in the resources between the parties, and familiarity with the system itself. But sometimes the Nation’s hand is forced, by destruction of their land, water, medicines, and animals for state-sanctioned industrial expansion that tramples their Aboriginal and treaty rights into dust.
Case in point — Beaver Lake Cree Nation in Alberta filed a legal action in 2008 against the governments of Canada and Alberta over the constitutional standing of numerous oilsands projects — one of the world’s largest and most carbon-intensive energy developments. The high-stakes action represents a precedent to the Canadian court. The Beaver Lake Cree case will be the first time a court is asked to draw the line defining too much industrial development in the face of constitutionally-protected treaty rights.
The conflict is between the promise in Treaty 6 signed back in 1876 that guarantees Beaver Lake Cree Nation the right to hunt, trap, fish and gather medicines in perpetuity throughout their traditional territory, and the government’s allowable ‘taking up of lands’ — also in the treaty. Here’s the thing: if a mega project or several are destroying all the elements underpinning the treaty, it shows you’ve got a serious constitutional problem on your hands.
And to indicate the seriousness of stakes, it took five years of beleaguered battling just to get the case to go to trial. Alberta and Canada are in a tough spot, having welcomed a veritable cavalcade of oilsands projects over the last couple of decades. So, Alberta and Canada as defendants fought every step of the way to have the claim dismissed as “frivolous, improper and an abuse of process.” But the courts disagreed — and said no further “delaying tactics” should be permitted lest the entire claim be “stonewalled at an early stage through excessive particularization.” Read: buried in paper and expensive motions.
To me this is an access to justice issue. We have characterized our work at RAVEN as reconciliation in action — although the term has now been somewhat co-opted. But in law, reconciliation has a specific meaning; it’s not a trite phrase borne of current circumstances in our history. It is a promise made to the Aboriginal peoples of Canada and enshrined in the Constitution Act, 1982.
Reconciliation is about forcing Crown sovereignty to take account of and be reconciled with rights reflecting the prior use and occupation of land and resources by the Indigenous nations of Canada. From an Indigenous peoples’ perspective, their community has a legal basis for its own protection and development. And supposedly this is a priority of our Prime Minister, unless his use of the word reconciliation is the cocktail party version, light and frothy political banter with no actual substance.
RAVEN wants to be part of the transition from the colonial period to the reconciliation era, because the colonial period was characterized by Crown sovereignty being exercised without regard or respect for land and resources rights. The ‘reconciliation era’ we want to see via a legal theory of change is rooted in s.35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 and the model of forcing Crown governments to retreat through court-enforced orders.
If you’d like to learn more or get involved, you can check out the Tar Sands Trial video here.
We have backed Beaver Lake Cree Nation’s legal action for nine years — and are working to raise the funds they need now to bring forward and substantiate their s.35 interests through the courts and rein in the unlawful use of Crown sovereignty. To play that winning card should not be a dilemma, but a way to beat Canada and the provinces at their own game.